References and Further Reading 1. Introduction What is a parent? The answer one gives to this question will likely include, either implicitly or explicitly, particular assumptions about the grounds of parental rights and obligations. Parenthood and biological parenthood are often seen as synonymous.
See Evid Based Med. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Context The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that interventions promoting effective parenting in early childhood influence development of obesity.
Methods Brotman and colleagues report on the long-term follow-up of two randomised controlled trials of parenting interventions.
Weight and obesity were not an initial focus of the studies, so the authors used video archives and a validated rating system to account for missing baseline and early follow-up weight data.
The studies used different curricula but with similar objectives for enhancing parent effectiveness: Nutrition, activity and weight were not addressed.
Follow-up assessments occurred on average 3—5 years after the intervention.
Findings Weight status at follow-up was significantly lower in the intervention group: Commentary This study was not primarily designed to assess obesity prevention, as the initial focus was to evaluate family interventions on effective parenting behaviours.
The authors were able to address research questions related to weight status by overcoming missing data and analysing conservatively. Due to the considerable lack of research in this area, this study provides insight for long-term obesity prevention in minority children, and provides useful information on the role of parenting, an under-studied area of obesity prevention.
Family-based interventions are an established approach to obesity treatment. This finding has been repeated by others.
Using the classic model of parenting styles, children of authoritarian parents strict disciplinarians appear to have the highest risk of obesity, even when compared with the children of permissive and neglectful parents.
While much work remains, it is intuitive that a family-based intervention will be either mediated or moderated by parents, who are charged with implementing behaviour change in the home.
Increased focus on parents, 34 and even parent weight loss, 5 holds promise. Brotman and colleagues give indirect evidence that interventions focused on parenting may successfully prevent obesity in high-risk youth.
Due to the narrow focus on children at high risk of behavioural issues, results of this study are limited in their application to other populations. The study was not designed to detect differences in weight status, and modifications to data collection and analysis were made to account for this.
Additionally, measures of parental weight status would have been beneficial, as parental obesity strongly predicts childhood obesity. There are many questions still remaining. This study indicates that effective parenting in early childhood may prevent behaviour problems and reduce the risk for obesity later; however, the key leverage points, such as parenting style, discipline, communication and role modelling, are still unknown.
Increasingly, researchers are incorporating frameworks like Family Systems Theory into family-based interventions, 6 recognising the interconnectedness of families. If clinicians hope to elicit behavioural change, accounting for this interconnectedness is likely to be important.For example, compared to children living in lower risk families, children living in families who concurrently experience multiple sociodemo- graphic risk .
Second, the cross-lagged associations indicated bidirectional effects between parents and children: Parenting behavior at 2 years predicted reading skills at 4 years, even after accounting for Bayley scores at 2 years, and Bayley scores at 2 years predicted parenting behavior at 4 years, even after accounting for parenting behavior at 2 years.
Parent education, child welfare, parenting programs, parent skills, child maltreatment, child abuse, child neglect preserve at-risk families or as a response to prevent the recurrence of. arc thought to be key intervention elements of parenting programs as. Involving At-Risk Families in Their Children's Education.
ERIC Digest Series Number EA Certain children, however, are in critical need of social intervention. These are generally the children who have traditionally been termed "at-risk." Schools cannot provide all the services that at-risk families need, such as parenting education. ties, families of children with ADHD have For children at risk for educational difﬁculties, such as those with ADHD, the quality of the family–school rela- intervention designed to improve parenting practices, family involvement in .
The problems of child maltreatment, domestic violence, and elder abuse have generated hundreds of separate interventions in social service, health, and law enforcement settings.
This array of interventions has been driven by the urgency of the different types of family violence, client needs, and.